Let’s Encrypt is a non-profit certificate authority run by Internet Security Research Group that provides X.509 certificates for Transport Layer Security encryption at no charge.

Certbot is usually meant to be used to switch an existing HTTP site to work in HTTPS (and, afterward, to continue renewing the site’s HTTPS certificates whenever necessary). Some Certbot documentation assumes or recommends that you have a working web site that can already be accessed using HTTP on port 80.

Assuming you are running your website on apache , first install certbot & later Certificate for your domain , here it is yourdomain.com

Install certbot for apache

] $ sudo apt install certbot python3-certbot-apache

Now get certificate for your domain

] $ certbot --apache --agree-tos --preferred-challenges http -d yourdomain.com -d www.yourdomain.com



Clam AntiVirus is an open-source (GPL) anti-virus toolkit for UNIX, designed especially for e-mail scanning on mail gateways. It provides a number of utilities including a flexible and scalable multi-threaded daemon, a command line scanner and advanced tool for automatic database updates. It has built-in support for all standard mail file formats, various archive formats, executable formats, and popular document formats. The core of the package is an anti-virus engine available in a form of shared library

Once calmav is installed on your centOS use this command to scan for malware , here I am scanning /home

]$ sudo clamscan -r /home



In SQL Server its a common requirement to count how many times a particular character is appeared in a string

in “Hello friend” , “l” occurred 2 times 

To find the number of occurrences , lets use a logic by

  1. Take total length of the string , say its 12 , in our case
  2. Now remove all “l” s
  3. Find difference before and after removing “l”
  4. This difference is the number of occurrence of “l” in the string “Hello friend”


select len('Hello friend')12select replace('Hello friend','l','')10select len('Hello friend') - len(replace('Hello friend','l',''))2



To solve this use letsencrypt. Install on your cPanel server as root


Once installed , this will be available under , WHM > Manage Auto SSL

Select Auto SSL Provider

Once selected , next time when issuing SSL certificate for any of your domain/subdomain , Letsencrypt certificates will be issued from SSL Status window in cPanel interface

for more information , get in touch with us : intertoons.com



Always check the latest version from official website

Here is 2 step direct upgrade

Always login as the privilaged user , say root

]# sudo npm install -g n

Now execute

]# sudo n latest

Or you can specify a latest version 12.2.2

]# sudo n 12.2.2

you ll be prompted like this in most cases

Note: the node command changed location and the old location may be remembered in your current shell.old : /usr/bin/nodenew : /usr/local/bin/nodeTo reset the command location hash either start a new shell, or execute PATH="$PATH"

in such case execute this as well


Now verify node version

]#node --version

you are done!



Photo by Sai Kiran Anagani on Unsplash

There are multiple options to get our distributions

  1. from file /etc/os-release
[root@server]# cat /etc/os-releaseNAME="CentOS Linux"VERSION="7 (Core)"ID="centos"ID_LIKE="rhel fedora"VERSION_ID="7"PRETTY_NAME="CentOS Linux 7 (Core)"ANSI_COLOR="0;31"CPE_NAME="cpe:/o:centos:centos:7"HOME_URL="https://www.centos.org/"BUG_REPORT_URL="https://bugs.centos.org/"CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT="CentOS-7"CENTOS_MANTISBT_PROJECT_VERSION="7"REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT="centos"REDHAT_SUPPORT_PRODUCT_VERSION="7"[root@server logs]#
  1. using command hostnamectl

[root@server logs]# hostnamectl
Static hostname: server.intertoons.netIcon name: computer-vmChassis: vmMachine ID: f1809c675ce9448da1980c2079f5dbc1Boot ID: b583c64bff3344c4ae5954efa675fa13Virtualization: kvmOperating System: CentOS Linux 7 (Core)CPE OS Name: cpe:/o:centos:centos:7Kernel: Linux 3.10.0–1062.12.1.el7.x86_64Architecture: x86–64

There may be more options , let us know in comments , meantime reach us here : https://intertoons.com



Reference : SQLShack :- FOR XML PATH clause in SQL Server

Photo by Caspar Camille Rubin on Unsplash

Here for instance ,we are creating a table Students

create table Students
stName varchar(100)

Now insert 3 records

insert into students values('abhilash')
insert into students values('akhil')
insert into students values('sajil')

Verify Results

select * from studentsText

Now our intention is to get the result as follows


Here is the script

Declare @var1 varchar(max) SELECT @var1=STUFF((SELECT ',' + stName FROM Students FOR XML PATH('')) ,1,1,'')SELECT @var1



Abhilash S

Abhilash S

Solutions Architect @ Intertoons , Over 16 years of Collective experiences In Windows , Linux Developments , Redhat, Google Certified Professional